Carbonation is not the sending of software users in the late Paleozoic, this is the process of transferring programs to Carbon. In the modern OS. Steve promised it in the third quarter of 1999. While Carbon himself was not there, it was so easy!
WWDC-98 had a lot of interesting things besides Carbon. Re-presentation of the iMac, the first one took place a few days before, we (on Apple IMC) have not had this thing yet.
In the lobby of the conference center, the organizers of the conference exhibited several copies of the iMac, for the tearing by the participants. Asking stupid questions and listening to stupid answers to them, I lingered a bit in the hall – and to get the iMac at my disposal for 15 minutes I had to defend a long queue …
At the same time I got acquainted with the future employer who stood in line after me, with Joe Birmingham. They agreed in their views on life, exchanged coordinates, and did not mention any work.
I tried the iMac, sent a short letter to a colleague (“sent from iMac” was set up by the robot, for three weeks everyone was jealous of me), found out that the mouse in the shape of a hockey puck does not shine when pressed, at least on the copy I got …
This question, for some reason, interested all my friends in the first place. And I do not remember whether the lights in the iMac “Rev. A “. The world is changing, and they are about mice …
I do not know why, the mouse in the shape of a hockey puck was very unloved among the people. In the peoples of all the countries known to me. I never had any problems with her, and drawing with her help was much more convenient than using any other.
Since there were still 9 years left before the iPhone, and several pictures were to be sent home, I solved the problem in an old soldier's way: I got a dozen A4 sheets from the communication bureau, wrote text on them with drawings (gel pen with Apple logos and WWDC- 98), and sent them by fax to the address of their native company. About the strategy of development of the operating system.
Already on May 12, 1998 on www.apple.ru a word of truth was published, which, in the background of sensational messages in various media, sounded dissonant, and “rotten apples” in comments came pouring down on us, but I did not know anything about it yet. When everything turned out, no one ever apologized. And I returned home later.
This is the fourth part of the series about turning Apple into NeXT Apple. Previous parts:
Sales were quietly falling …
By the time of the presentation, Steve steered Apple for 10 months. And of course, he began his speech by comparing the situation 10 months ago with the current one (May 11, 1998). It was terrible, now it's much better. Two profitable quarters in a row, more than 100 million profits, Apple's share in the market seemed to have grown from 3.4% in December 1997 to almost 4% in May 1998 (he forgot to add “according to preliminary estimates,” in fact, it fell to 3, 3%).
Sales volumes were still falling, the profitability of the company Steve squeezed draconian measures. In some kind of detective, which I saw a couple of months before the trip, the main character was handcuffed to the rear axle of the car with the engine turned on, and he had to saw off his right hand with a file of a penknife … Apple was in a similar position. I saw myself “alive” in order to survive.
After the massive dismissal (which, in my opinion, almost half of Apple touched), the company did not have a group of advanced technologies, no dozens of very interesting projects, no technical documentation department (the best in the industry), and the technical support department developers fell to a few people.
The company left hundreds of irreplaceable and very valuable employees. Over time, they were replaced by others, also valuable and irreplaceable, but already different. Much was lost.
The Head of the DTS (Developers' Technical Support) honestly warned me that there were only a few people in his department, and they are all overloaded with working with large clients. Help will be, as far as possible and according to the residual principle. If there is something extremely urgent, I should personally write to him – otherwise the answers will be postponed indefinitely.
WWDC-98 was very interesting, but I will not be distracted from the beginning of the “great transition”. Maybe someday …
Carbon and his rough specification
The first impressions of the “masses” were quite favorable. I myself really wanted to dive into the depths of the C ++ code, pocavikriste, and to do its adaptation to the “bright future”. The task was painstaking, but quite solvable.
At WWDC, participants were given “Draft Carbon Specification”, and invited to participate in the discussion of its items. In this draft, for different parts of the classical system, one of three variants of the future was proposed: to remove, to alter or to leave.
That is, Carbon was still being designed, and even at the highest level its composition was not yet determined.
Nevertheless, during the presentation, Steve Jobs informed the developers that the CarbonLib library, the interface with the “modern” version of Mac OS, will be included not only in Mac OS X (in the third quarter of 1999), but in all versions of the classical system, starting with Mac OS 8.5 “Allegro”.
It was claimed that applications whose source code is compatible with CarbonLib will be compatible with the modern operating system. Specifications of which have not yet been fully determined. Some believed.
In the plans of Jobs and Tevanian, for the development of the first version of Carbon was allocated approximately five quarters – a year and three months. In the process, it was necessary to make changes not only to particular issues (this is natural in any large project), but even in its basics. Because of this, CarbonLib in Mac OS 8.6 was radically different from CarbonLib in Mac OS 8.5, and in each new version of the classic system something was added / changed / deleted in it.
But the most unpleasant was yet to come. CarbonLib did not pay attention, for example, to direct calls to peripheral devices. Inexperienced operating systems, like the classic Mac OS or Windows 3.x, allowed programs to do whatever they wanted, with all the computer's RAM, communicate directly with peripheral devices, and in general they were incredibly convenient for programmers … of course, due to the security of the user and its data.
In modern systems, these, and many others, opportunities are provided by other rules and other principles. Security is not guaranteed even by them, with them, only, much safer.
All software products in which actions that become illegal in the new system were actively used and were vital, quietly combined with CarbonLib (perhaps with warnings – but who pays attention to them?), But when it came to business …
Carbon (real), meanwhile, divided itself into several parts, and one of them, the Core Foundation, was, as the engineers say, “pushed under Cocoa.” The basis of libraries on Objective-C became object-oriented (with the epithet “pseudo”) libraries on pure C, available simultaneously from both Cocoa and from Carbon. In Mac OS X, in addition to the low-level Unix framework, there is another common basis, this time high-level.
Yes, the YellowBox module, which until recently was Rhapsody, and before that OPENSTEP, changed the name again. It was renamed Cocoa. In the group of advanced technologies there was an incredibly interesting project with this name. Something intended for children, for their entertainment and development of creative abilities.
But the project was closed, its result will never enter the market (it is fatally obsolete for the past 20 years since its closure), all its developers, managers and spiritual the leaders were dismissed from the company … And his name was appropriated by the technology, prioritized by NeXT.
To be continued